Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Microbiology Test Questions Essays Microbiology Test Questions Essay Microbiology Test Questions Essay A complex aggregation of microbes, often found on a solid surface, is called a thin film of microorganisms on the surface of a microscope slide is a(n) 9. 110. The gelatinous covering around the cell wall of many microorganisms is called ; a resistant, dormant structure formed within a bacterium that protects t T I room extreme environmental contraltos Is a(n) 1 1. /12. The science of classifying organisms is called the study of the evolutionary history of organisms is called Microbiology 233/Dry. Braun/Practice Test #1 2 13. 114. A pure culture of organisms is called a(n) genetically related groups are called 15. The highest level of classification is called a(n) SHORT ANSWER. (40 points) 16. A. Name the groups at the level of classification referred to in #15. B. What is the basis for distinguishing the groups at this level? 17. Compare and contrast the theories of spontaneous generation and bossiness. 18. A. Briefly state Kochs Postulates. B. Why are these important? Mollycoddled 233/Dry. Braun/Practice lest # 19. A. In descending order, list the 7 major levels of classification. B. Explain or describe a binomial, in scientific nomenclature. Give 2 specific examples. 20. List the 4 major groups of eukaryotic organisms, and the key characteristics of each one. B. Microbiology 233/Dry. Braun/Practice Test #1 4 TRUE / FALSE. (30 points) Circle TRUE or FALSE for each statement. Extra Credit: For each statement you think is false, correct it by crossing out the word(s) that make it false and adding word(s) to make it true. Do not rewrite the whole statement. 21. Microorganisms are identified and classified according to various methods, including morphological features, biochemical tests, differential staining and the type of virus a bacterium is susceptible to. TRUE / FALSE . Methods of comparing the DNA of different organisms include: DNA fingerprinting, Southern blotting, serological testing and nucleic acid habitation. TRUE / FALSE . Both DNA and RNA can be used to identify microbes. 24. Phylogeny relationships can be determined by a molecular clock, which is based on the fact that genetic mutations occur at a fairly constant rate over time. 25. Archaic include both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, but none are pathogenic. 26. Photosynthetic bacteria include Contractible, green and purple bacteria, and allotrope- bacteria; oxygen is produced only by the bacteria that use sulfur as an electron acceptor. Gram-positive Etcetera are leave Into 2 groups, oases on ten amount AT and cytosine they have in their DNA. Guanine 28. The main difference between fungi and bacteria is the chemical composition of their cell walls. FALSE Microbiology 233/Dry. Braun,prance -rest 5 29. The main difference between algae and plants is that algae do not have roots, stems and leaves. Helmets are multicultural eukaryote that have various organ systems, except arms, which rely on their hosts for vital functions. Parasitic 31. MATCHING. Microscopy (10 points) Detailed view of internal structures of living microbes. A. Phase-contrast Magnification up to xx; oil improves resolution. Electron Darkled Uses 2 beams of light to improve resolution. B. Con-Focal C. Scanning D. E. -row- Maps atomic and molecular shapes; intracellular temper atures. Photon Fluorescence Deep images of cells in tissues; active cells in real time. G. Scanned-Probe Pathogenic microbes within cells and tissues. Brightened l. Transmission Electron Live microbes that cannot be viewed by other methods. Scanning Acoustic Extremely clear Interference Contrast 2-monsoonal Images. Detrimental High resolution; 3-D view; different layers of a specimen. Living cells attached to another surface, such as cancer cells and arterial plaque. Microbiology 233/Dry. Braun/Practice Test #1 6 32. List the 5 phyla of Bacteria, the key characteristics of each one, and a specific example (40 points) Phylum Key Characteristics with its importance to human beings or the environment. Specific organism its importance
Monday, March 2, 2020
Narrative Essay Ideas and Advice Narrative Essay Ideas and Advice A narrative essay is a person anecdote or story. It is usually written in the first person and almost always is an account of the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s personal experience. Writing a narrative essay allows students to express themselves creatively and address issues that they have personally experienced. These essays are quite popular among students as it is impossible to be factually wrong about a personal story. This limits the need for research. This does not mean that there are no pitfalls that exist, however. For example, before a student can even begin to write, they must have a few interesting narrative essay ideas. They must also use good spelling and grammar, descriptive language, and write with a purpose in order for their essay to be deemed a success. With this in mind, we have created this post with two goals in mind. The first is to provide students with a lot of great essay ideas. The second is to help each student reading this post to write an organized, well-formatted, and extremely readable essay. Great Ideas for a Narrative Essay Here are some ideas that you can use as food for thought asÃ you begin selecting the perfect topic for your narrative essay: What has been your best experience so far as a college student? Write about a time when you were really frightened? Describe meeting your current boyfriend or girlfriend. Has anybody thrown you a surprise party? What was that like? Describe your favorite place What did you do on your last road trip? Plan the ideal week long vacation What was the last thing you did with your best friend When was the last time that you were completely unsure of how to handle a problem? What was the best piece of advice you ever received? How did you use it? Have you ever traveled to a foreign country? Have you ever climbed a mountain, gone backpacking, or experienced some other travel adventure? Technical Advice on Writing a Narrative Essay A student who has a great idea and a creative mind is already off to a good start when it comes to writing a great narrative essay. However, before they get started, it is very important to think about some technical issues. A big part of this is spelling and grammar, but there is more to it than that. Students must put a lot of thought into the way that they are going to tell their story to their readers. One way to write a narrative essay is to use a storytelling format. If a student wants to use this format that is fine. They simply must include all of the elements that one would expect in a story. This means a plot, climax, introduction, and conclusion. Another option that students have is to write their narrative essay as a classically formatted essay. This would mean starting with an introductory paragraph that includes a thesis. The thesis could be related to a lesson that was learned or a conclusion the writer reaches after experiencing something. How to Begin a Narrative Essay Starting an essay can be quite difficult. This is no different when it comes to the narrative essay. Sometimes the best way to begin is with a bit of a sneak peak. Here is an example: I felt my stomach jump into my chest when I saw the red and blue lights flashing behind me. What I didn't know was that the speeding ticket I was about to receive would be the best thing that ever happened to me. This is an easy and excellent way to kick off any narrative essay.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
College is worth - Essay Example In addition to that, these protagonist claim that college graduates have got advanced interpersonal skills, have children who are healthier, live longer and have even proved their capacity to accomplish key milestones (Richard, 2012). On the other hand individuals against college contend the fact that debt arising out of college loans is very high and therefore hinders graduates from starting early savings for their retirement, getting married and purchasing a house. They further argue that several successful people never finished their college education and that several jobs particularly trades jobs, necessarily do not need college degrees (Bennett, 2013). Those are not only the underlying issues though. Thus the presence of highly successful individuals who dropped out of college such as Steve Jobs, Bill Gates and most recently Mark Zuckerberg weighs heavily on young individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ decisions on whether or not to attend college education. Similarly some experts make arguments that going to college have literally become less about studying actual skills and more about basically paying to get a degree. Meanwhile the debate about college education is quite controversial and is on many forums of the American Society and expected to go on in foreseeable
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Deforestation In Amazon And Local Climate Changes - Essay Example The strong threat of climate change is coupled with another eerie possibility that of absolute regional drought that can be caused by climatic change. Most of the remaining tropical forests of the world are in the Amazon region, and some areas of the forest contain huge deposits of the range of organisms present in a particular ecological community or system. Therefore the continuous deforestation in the Amazon threatens climate stability and is an added factor to the global atmospheric change disaster. Scientific research has overwhelmingly proved that cutting and removing trees from their natural environment contributes 1.5 billion tons of carbon dioxide out into the atmosphere every year. Clearing forests to acquire more land and more human activities in the tropics will release an additional 1300 billion tons of carbon per year, which is greater than the amount of carbon emissions released by 13 years burning of fossil fuel all over the world. The new research conclusively proves that preserving huge forests such as the Amazon as carbon absorbents will contribute a great deal to stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. Another important factor is the need to reduce levels of emission as these could slow down the capacity of forests to absorb carbon. Method of Research: An official inquiry was carried out for the way in which deforestation effects climate changes with the help of twin numerical experiments of an Ã¢â¬Å"atmosphere general circulation model (AGCM) with prearranged and approved global sea temperature and the AGCM over the global tropics. The results showed that the twenty first century environmental change may be the most unfortunate bequest that will be passed on to future generations. The strong threat of climate change is coupled with another eerie possibility that of unmitigated regional drought brought about by climatic change. More than half of the remaining tropical forests of the world are in the Amazon region, and some areas of the forest contain huge deposits of the range of organisms present in a particular ecological community or system. It is generally measured by the numbers and types of different species, or the genetic variations within and between species. In fact the Amazon contains about 25% of the biodiversity on the face of the Earth (Science Daily 2007). It acts as a major agent of global climate making vapor to produce clouds, which has a deep circulating affect across the entire globe. It also stores mass of living organisms within a particular environment, measured in terms of weight per unit of area and soil carbon. Therefore the continuous deforestation in the Amazon threatens climate stability and is an added factor to the global atmospheric change catastrophe. On the other hand the stabilization of the deforestation of the Amazon forests would provide the chance for adaptation to climate change including contributing towards the improvement of climate change. To control deforestation in the Amazo n would envisage major replacements in policies, governance, sustainability and economic science. Quantity of Rainfall: Rainfall decreases over deforested tracts, because heavy clouds holding copious amounts of water are only attracted to tracts of heavy forests, which was proved conclusively during the Rondonian Boundary Layer Experiment the physical methods and means that constitute the link between rain bearing clouds and heavy forestation. It has been amply demonstrated that the atmospheric limits over areas of heavy forests is more unbalanced and contains larger
Saturday, January 25, 2020
The Go-Between 1. Overview This book is a memory story: a man in his sixties looks back on his boyhood of the middle class boy recalling the events that took place on a summer visit to an aristocratic family in Norfolk in the 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s. The author uses double narrative, the young Leo's actions told by the older Leo, and it shows us how it has affected his life Firsttly, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll introduce the main characters, their functions and relationships, then IÃ¢â¬â¢ll give you a small summary of the story, followed by the main themes and their symbolic elements, and finally the style of the book. Leo Colston has two different aspects, heÃ¢â¬â¢s the narrator of the book, a man of about sixty year old, and heÃ¢â¬â¢s a Ã¢â¬Å"dried upÃ¢â¬ man inside. Leo is a young boy of the middle class. He lives alone with his mother in West Hash, a little village near Salisbury. His father was a bank gardener in Salisbury is dead, Leo thinks he was a crank, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want his son to go to school but his mother always wanted him to go so as soon as he died, he went. His mother liked gossip and was very sensitive to public opinion, she needed social frame, and we can easily imagine her pleasure when her son has been invited to spend a summer to a rich friend. He has also an aunt, Charlotte, a Londoner. He and his mother were living on her money, the pension from the bank and the little; his father had been able to put by. Leo attends to the same school as upper class boys, such as Maudsley (he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t remember his name probably because he has never been a special friend to him but while reading the diary he remembers his name was Marcus). Leo used to write his feelings and the happenings of each day on a diary. He believed he had magical powers and was able to cast spells. When he was at school, two boys who had annoyed him had an accident and he believes it is due to what he wrote on his journal. When he went to Brandham Hall, he was naÃ ¯ve and innocent. He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know anything about love and sex. He naturally felt in love with a beautiful lady, as any young boy would have done. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s curious about sex even if he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know what it is. The lack of father is especially important at that point; those explanations should be made by the father Ã¢â¬Å"itÃ¢â¬â¢s a job for your dad reallyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ At the end of the story he has discovered what he wanted to know but the outcome is devasting for him, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll be haunted al... ...She refers to her grandson, but in a sense Leo is the child of that 'happiness and beauty' of theirs which ignored all moral responsibility. Within the story itself we are led to see a duplicity in Marian which discredits her morally. Her kindness in taking Leo to Norwich for the new suit is marred by her second motive of meeting Ted. Her affection for Leo is undermined by her use of him. The birthday present of the bycyle which almost diverts him from his own belief in his moral duty to leave Brandham, and which he dreams of riding in the village street at home, is intended to make him a more efficient go-between. Ted may seem to be more concerned about Leo, but the narrator's verdict on him is that with all his decency and vitality, he is cowardly. Interpreting The Go Between has a moral tale meets with keen opposition from some readers who insist that Marian and Ted are the only healthy, natural people in the book; that Leo suffers from having lived a fantasy, and that Trimingham is living a rather pompous role as lord of the manor. The Go-Between is more than a simple moral tale. It does not force an interpretation on the reader, but invites him to think for himself.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Levi Strauss & Co. An Analysis EEP 142 Group Project Young Lee James Moon Michael Lin Problem Ã¢â¬ ¢The Levi Strauss company is experiencing losses and is continuing to under-perform in the denim jean market. Ã¢â¬ ¢The firm faces the general problem of a dominant firm losing market share when more firms enter the market. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Background Ã¢â¬â History Ã¢â¬ ¢The company was founded by Levi Strauss in 1853 primarily selling wholesale dry goods. The company was founded in San Francisco, California. A tailor named Jacob Davis thought of an idea to use copper rivets to reinforce the points of strain on pants. Ã¢â¬ ¢Davis and Strauss purchased the patent of the idea of using copper rivets in clothing on May 20, 1873. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Background Ã¢â¬â Company Growth Ã¢â¬ ¢The innovation of the rivets in the jeans differentiated LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s j eans from others because of its increased durability. Ã¢â¬ ¢Over the years, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans have become more popular, initially due to its durability. Jean products expanded, targeting different consumers. Levi Strauss & Co. eventually captures most of the denim jean market, becomes the largest manufacturer of jeans, and profits reach $1 billion by 1974. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Background Ã¢â¬â Time Line Ã¢â¬ ¢1853: Levi Strauss begins selling dry goods in San Francisco. Ã¢â¬ ¢1873: Levi Strauss & Co. patent riveted jeans and begin selling them. Ã¢â¬ ¢1912: Koveralls, denim playsuit for children, is first nationally sold product for the company. Ã¢â¬ ¢1935: Company sells first blue jeans for women. Ã¢â¬ ¢1940s: U. S. overnment issues denim work clothes for employees in the defense industry. Ã¢â¬ ¢1974: Company sales reach $1 billion Ã¢â¬ ¢1986: Company introduces Dockers as a new casual line of clothes Problem B ackground Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Successes Ã¢â¬â Monopoly Ã¢â¬ ¢Since the patent of the rivets in jeans in 1873, the company achieved monopoly power. Ã¢â¬ ¢Monopoly power was gained through entry barriers. Ã¢â¬âThe patent granted the firm monopoly rights to sell riveted jeans. Ã¢â¬ ¢Also by product differentiation Ã¢â¬âThe rivets on the jeans allowed for longer durability, a form of vertical differentiation. Product differentiation and barriers to entry allowed the company to gain more popularity and market share. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Successes Ã¢â¬â Expansion Ã¢â¬ ¢By 1977, Levi Strauss & Co. is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s largest jean manufacturer. Ã¢â¬ ¢Department stores and boutiques sell LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s products and are additional channels of distribution for the company. Ã¢â¬ ¢LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s provides a wide range of products that target different market segments, capturing demands. Ã¢â¬ ¢After the release of the 501 product line, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s enjoys worldwide market dominance in the denim jean market. Levi Strauss & Co. maintains itÃ¢â¬â¢s image as an American Icon and the originator of American jeans. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Successes Ã¢â¬â Positioning Ã¢â¬ ¢Other marketing strategies, like the position of the product, created increased differentiation, contributing to the companies market power. Ã¢â¬ ¢In 1930s, the company survived the Great Depression due to increased interest in Western culture. Ã¢â¬âJeans were positioned as being worn by Ã¢â¬Å"cowboys. Ã¢â¬ cowboys. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans were issued to employees in the defense industry (including veterans) during World War II. Post World War II, veterans that went to college wore LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans on LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ campuses, increasing popularity. Ã¢â¬ ¢WWII veterans were regarded as heroes. Ã¢â¬âJeans were shown to be suitable for casual wear, rather than work. work. Ã¢â¬âDuring the Baby Boom era, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s targets younger consumers and LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ positions product as Ã¢â¬Å"cool. Ã¢â¬ cool. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢Early movie stars wore LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans. An example of celebrity endorsement LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢Consumer demand shifts from durability of jeans to fashion of jeans. Ã¢â¬âCulturally, jeans became symbol of youth and rebellion In 1960s, student protesters wore jeans as a uniform Ã¢â¬ ¢In 1970s, company sells bellbottom jeans Ã¢â¬ ¢ The firm positioned its products with changing times and changing demands, keeping existing customers and capturing new markets. Increases in sales ultimately increased profits Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Competition Ã¢â¬â Effect Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi Strauss & Co. was threatened by competition, because barriers of entry were relatively low in the jean market. (excluding the patent) Ã¢â¬ ¢S ome of LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s competitors include: Ã¢â¬âCalvin Klein Ã¢â¬âGap Jeans Ã¢â¬âVF Corp (Lee, Wrangler) Ã¢â¬âTommy Hilfiger The entrance of new competitors had many effects on LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬âLeviÃ¢â¬â¢s no longer has monopoly power more competitive prices LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ lower profits Ã¢â¬âAvailability of substitutes firm faces increase in elasticity of demand Ã¢â¬âConsumers prefer other brands. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s customers buy from competition LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ lowering LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s market share. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢These newer upstarts are able to Ã¢â¬Å"chip awayÃ¢â¬ at LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s market dominance because they are able to capture segments. Ã¢â¬âVF Corp captures low-end jean consumers; Calvin Klein captures highlowhighend consumers. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Competition Ã¢â¬â Strategies Ã¢â¬ ¢Competitors successfully were able to take from LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s market due to heavy advertising and branding. Branding was especially effective for companies like Calvin Klein that targeted high-end consumers. Ã¢â¬ ¢Some of the marketing strategies that competitors like Calvin Klein used to differentiate their product and brand included: Ã¢â¬âCelebrity endorsements (Calvin Klein and Brooke Shields) Ã¢â¬âUp-to-date European product designs (low-rise, tighter) Up- to(lowÃ¢â¬âAdvertise jeans as Ã¢â¬Å"designer. designer. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢These advertisements were used as a barrier to entry, because of spurious product differentiation. Although LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s jeans may be physically the same as its competitorÃ¢â¬â¢s, consumer preferences are affected by brand name. Ã¢â¬ ¢In addition to the idea of branding, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s largest consumer market were Baby Boomers , and by the time competitors increased in the 1980s, the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s brand was perceived to be Ã¢â¬Å"mommy jeans. Ã¢â¬ This reinforced the more youthful perception of other brands. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Competition Premium Jeans Ã¢â¬ ¢LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s failed to recognize and enter a new and booming premium jeans market, originating in 2000 and led by brands such as Seven For All Mankind, True Religion, and Rock & Republic. Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi executives themselves admitted failing to see the premium jeans trend, and the company was forced into radical cost-cutting, closing dozens of factories and laying off thousands of workers. Ã¢â¬ ¢The premium jeans market has over the last five years largely driven the growth of an otherwise stable jeans market, as premium jeans sales grew at a 40-45% rate for multiple years. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to adequately respond to this trend was a large part of its posting declining sales in nine out of ten years prior to 2007. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Solutions Ã¢â¬â Advertising Ã¢â¬ ¢With the rise of competitors and decrease in brand image, Levi Strauss & Co. makes use of edgy advertisements. Ã¢â¬ ¢Brand Loyalty Ã¢â¬âMany of LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s ads stress brand loyalty to maintain existing customers. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ The word Ã¢â¬Å"originalÃ¢â¬ is used many times. originalÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âSome tv ads are set in the late 1800s, stressing the historic value of the company. Brand Image Ã¢â¬âAt the same time, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s ads stress the Ã¢â¬Å"youthfulnessÃ¢â¬ of their brand LeviÃ¢â¬â¢ youthfulnessÃ¢â¬ jeans. Ã¢â¬âThe 501 product line and the Red Tab collections offer jeans that appeal that to younger consumers competing with the high-end jean competitors. highÃ¢â¬âTelevision advertisements a re more innovative and target younger crowds. Ã¢â¬âhttp://www. youtube. com/watch? v=CSG807d3P-U http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=CSG807d3PÃ¢â¬âhttp://www. youtube. com/watch? v=skWFyop_pxU&feature=related Ã¢â¬âhttp://www. youtube. com/watch? v=W-SZN1VRIl4&feature=related http://www. youtube. com/watch? v=W- These marketing strategies however did not help with the worldwide decrease demand for jeans. This implies that other clothing is becoming a substitutable good for jeans. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Solutions Ã¢â¬â Alternative Ã¢â¬ ¢Although Levi Strauss & Co. had worldwide market dominance in the 1980s after the release of 501 product line, profits continue to plummet due to: (1) decrease of demand for jean products and (2) more competition. Ã¢â¬ ¢In 1996, revenues were reported at $7. 6 billion and a U. S. market share of 18. 7%. By 2001 revenues drop to $4. 5 billion and U. S. market share of 12. 1%. Ã¢â¬ ¢I n order to maintain revenues, the company releases the LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s signature jeans. Ã¢â¬âThis product line appeals to the low-end consumers. Ã¢â¬âDecrease in demand for jeans causes market price to drop, so consumers want cheaper jeans. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Solutions Ã¢â¬â Alternative (cont. ) Ã¢â¬ ¢In 2002 Levi Strauss & Co. makes an agreement with largest retailer Wal-Mart as a supply-chain strategy to massmarket consumers. Ã¢â¬âLeviÃ¢â¬â¢s Signature brand to be sold in Wal-Mart stores exclusively This was an excellent strategic move because Wal-Mart was making large sales while LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s could not keep up in sales. This had potential to benefit both parties. Ã¢â¬âBy 2002, Wal-Mart was #1 in the Fortune 500 rating. Ã¢â¬âLevi Strauss & Co. was ranked #383 in 2002. Ã¢â¬ ¢Although this partnership was a success, Levi Strauss could not offset the slowdown in the aggregate denim jean market, continu ing to loss profits. Ã¢â¬â2008 Rating for LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s: 522 from previous 510 Ã¢â¬âProfits continue to fall. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Solutions Ã¢â¬â Alternative (cont. ) Forced to re-evaluate itself by years of declining sales, LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s has been able to find some degree of success with primarily the introduction of the Signature line and a largescale streamlining of costs and itÃ¢â¬â¢s business. LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s is also being helped by its international presence and is currently being benefited by impacts from the global currency exchange market, as the company benefited from the weak dollar. Ã¢â¬ ¢The company is still trying to find a way into the lucrative premium jeans market, introducing a new premium line and hiring famous artists to liven up the brand. Competitor VF Corp. ecided to purchase Seven For All Mankind as their market entry. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclu sion Q&A Responsibility Ã¢â¬â Background Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi Strauss & Co. is a family owned worldwide corporation with headquarters in North America, Europe, and Asia. Ã¢â¬âThe company is vertically integrated, meaning it owns/has owned factories for every level of production for the jeans. Ã¢â¬âThe company employs about 10,000 people worldwide. Ã¢â¬ ¢Historically Levi Strauss & Co. is recognized as a caring and corporately responsible company. Ã¢â¬âAfter the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, he company continued to pay workers as it was rebuilding factories and buildings. Ã¢â¬âDuring the Great Depression, the company kept workers busy installing new floors in factories rather than fire them. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Responsibility Ã¢â¬â Background (cont. ) Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi Strauss & Co. has also taken the lead on social issues. Ã¢â¬âDuring the 1940s, the company desegregated its factories bringing white and black worker s together. Ã¢â¬âIn 1980s, the company was very involved in educating people about AIDS providing $37 million to HIV/AIDS services. One of the first companies to extend healthcare to their workersÃ¢â¬â¢ spouses. Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi Strauss & Company approach to business: Ã¢â¬Å"profits through principles. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ As business leaders we have the obligation, both individually and collectively, to make our enterprise not only a source for economic wealth, but also a force for positive social change in the conduct of our business. This principle of responsible commercial success is embedded in our more than 150-year experience, and continues to anchor how we operate today. Ã¢â¬ Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Responsibility Ã¢â¬â Sweatshops Ã¢â¬ ¢With increased competition from other jean producers in the 1980s and 90s, like any profit-maximizing corporation, Levi Strauss & Company closed many factories and subcontracted production. Ã¢â¬âSubcontracted production is cost-minimizing because labor is relatively abundant and wages cheaper. Ã¢â¬âIn order to compete with prices, subcontracting work makes sense. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Responsibility Ã¢â¬â Sweatshops (cont. ) Ã¢â¬ ¢The company had 6 subsidiary factories in Saipan, capital of the U. S. Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Ã¢â¬âThe U. S. Department of Labor cited that workers were paid sub-minimal wages, 7 day work weeks with 12-hour shifts in Ã¢â¬Å"slave-likeÃ¢â¬ conditions. Ã¢â¬ ¢The subcontractor, Tan Holdings Corporation, had to pay a fine of of $9 million as restitution to 1,200 employees. Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi Strauss & Co. claimed no knowledge of the offense, cut-off cutties to Tan Holdings, and issued labor reforms. Ã¢â¬ ¢1999, Sweatshop Watch, Global Exchange, Asian Law Caucus, Unite, and workers filed a class-action lawsuit 3 times to 27 U. S. retailers, including Levi Strauss & Co. Levi Strauss was the only defendant to win the case. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Responsibility Ã¢â¬â Environmental Ã¢â¬ ¢Continuing on the approach of Ã¢â¬Å"profits by principles,Ã¢â¬ in 2006 Levi Strauss & Co. launches the Eco clothing line. Ã¢â¬âJeans are certified to be made from 100% organic cotton and fully sustainable production processes. This includes cotton untreated by chemicals, pesticides, and manufactured at sustainable carbon emissions. Ã¢â¬âThe jeans are also packed in 100% recyclable and reusable materials. Ã¢â¬ ¢Economic implications Organic jeans are more expensive, due to the added costs to certify these genes to organic standards. Ã¢â¬âHowever, discouraging the use of chemicals for cotton is a step toward the right direction. Pesticides have externality costs to the environment and workers, because they are mostly improperly used in poor countries. A reduction in externalities improves social welfare. Ã¢â¬âIn the long-run, sustainable production has the possibility to being profitable. Ã¢â¬âCorporate responsibility also has long-run profits. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A Conclusion Ã¢â¬ ¢Levi Strauss & Company had most of its early success because the firm was behaving monopolistically. The company patented the riveted jeans, increasing durability, and gaining popularity. Ã¢â¬ ¢Over the years, the company maintained profits by providing a wide range of products, capturing new markets, and increasing its market shares. The company created barriers to entry by patents and trademarks, and by differentiating its product from generic jeans. Ã¢â¬ ¢However as more firms entered the market, the company started losing customers and incurring losses. The upstart companies captured niche market shares from LeviÃ¢â¬â¢s immense market domination. Ã¢â¬ ¢Despite these reduction of sales, Levi Strauss & Co. maintained its corporate responsible image and progressive stance on social, labor, and environmental issues, which may have long-run profit opportunities. Problem Background Successes Competition Solutions Responsibility Conclusion Q&A References Frith, Maxine. Ã¢â¬Å"The Ethical Revolution Sweeping Through the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Frith, WorldÃ¢â¬â¢ Sweatshops. Ã¢â¬ commondreams. org. 16 April 2005. 2 May 2008 Sweatshops. Ã¢â¬ commondreams. org. .
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Kyalae T. Haywood March 23, 2014 Making of a Christian Leader What is Character Human Ã¢â¬Å"characterÃ¢â¬ , is the pattern of thinking and acting which runs right through someone, so that wherever you cut into them, you see the same person through and through . The transformation of a person character is their virtue. Virtue is what happens when wise and courageous choices have become Ã¢â¬Å"second nature .Ã¢â¬ Wright differentiates a biblical framework from a Greek moral framework in that Jesus and his followers are offering the three-dimensional model toward Aristotle two-dimensional points . Wright gives us excellent contrast between biblical and Greek moral framework and I agree with his positions. For example, Aristotle felt for someoneÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Romans 13:2, Ã¢â¬Å"Therefore whoever resists the authorities resists what God has appointed, and those who resist will incur judgment.  Badaracco, L. Joseph. Questions of Character: Illuminating the Heart of Leadership Through Literature. Copyright. 2006. P. 31  Ibid. 40  Ibid. 52 Yes I do see tension between Badaracco moral flexibility and Kouzes and Maxwell values in that Okonkwo didnÃ¢â¬â¢t take any responsibility in his failure and lacked a great deal of remorse. Badaracco states, Ã¢â¬Å"A sound moral code requires an ongoing, open engagement with the moral and practical life that surrounds the leader. On some occasions, the clearest sign of a good moral code is flexibility rather than firmnessÃ¢â¬ . Kouzes/Posner states, Ã¢â¬Å"Leadership is both something you are and something you do.Ã¢â¬ In other words, leadership is not just something you live but something you behave . Okonkwo behavior represented who he really is and the content of his character. Kouzes/Posner states that people do what they see and his example was not good as it pertains to leadership. Okonkwo behavior was so fixed that he had no regard for going against the values of his tribe and jeopardized a traditional religious period of time, but rather accepted his punishment . Leaders need both the ability to be sensitive to community feelings when situations that require moral reactions and to confront failures looking for explanations asShow MoreRelatedChristian Leadership : A Christian Leader1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshas the authority to speak on Christian leadership, it is Henri Nouwen because of his professorship at Ivy League Universities and long-standing role as a priest. Yet Nouwen leans not on either of these credentials; instead, he shares his reflections on leadership that he learned while serving at Daybreak community for handicapped people. What is more, Nouwen learned the most amazing leadership principles when he was asked to speak in Washington D. 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